ovarian cancer

(from OvarianCancerAwareness.org)

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms and Signs

Ovarian cancer symptoms are often subtle and difficult to diagnose. Research suggests there are four symptoms that may be associated with ovarian cancer:

• Bloating

• Pelvic or Abdominal pain

• Difficulty eating or feeling full quickly

• Urinary urgency or frequency

 Other Symptoms may include

• Nausea, indigestion, gas, constipation or diarrhea

• Extreme fatigue

• Shortness of breath

• Backaches

Talk to your doctor if symptoms last more than 2-3 weeks. You are your best advocate.


Your doctor may order the following tests:

• Physical examination – Your doctor will palpate your abdomen to look for discomfort and tenderness or abnormal fluid

• Pelvic examination

• Blood Test – Your doctor may order a CA-125 blood test. This test measures CA-125 in the blood. CA-125 is found on the surface on ovarian cancer cells and also normal tissue. A high CA-125 level may indicate ovarian cancer or other conditions.

• Ultrasound

• Biopsy

Stages of Ovarian Cancer

There are four stages of ovarian cancer. Your doctor will determine your stage of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is treated differently depending on which stage you are diagnosed with.

The four primary stages are:

Stage I: The cancer is completely contained within the ovary or ovaries

Stage II: The cancer is in one or both of the ovaries and has spread to additional organs located in the pelvis such as the bladder, colon, rectum or uterus.

Stage III: The cancer is in one or both ovaries and has spread to one or both of the following: the lining of the abdomen or the lymph nodes.

Stage IV: The most advanced stage of cancer. The cancer has spread from one or both ovaries to additional organs such as the liver or lungs, or there may be cancer cells in the fluid surrounding the lungs.

Recurrent: The cancer has returned after successful treatment.

Risk Factors

Ovarian cancer does not discriminate. It can strike a woman of any race or at any age. We do know that women with certain risk factors may have a greater chance of developing ovarian cancer. These risk factors include:

• Family history of breast or ovarian cancer

• Personal history of cancer

• Women over the age of 55

• Women who were never pregnant

• Women on menopausal hormone replacement therapy


Studies have found that women who have a mother, daughter, or sister with ovarian cancer have an increased risk of developing this disease. Women with a family history of breast cancer, uterine cancer,  colon cancer or rectal cancer many also have increased risk.

Women with the BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 gene have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer. More information about the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes can be found here.

Read more about ovarian cancer and the role of heredity and genetic testing from the National Cancer Institute here.

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